Xanthine oxidoreductase is a regulator of adipogenesis and PPARgamma activity.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Cell metabolism, Volume 5, Issue 2, p.115-28 (2007)

Keywords:

3T3-L1 Cells, Adipocytes, Adipogenesis, Adipose Tissue, Adiposity, Animals, CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Humans, MICE, Organ Size, PPAR gamma, RNA, Small Interfering, Thiazolidinediones, Xanthine Dehydrogenase

Abstract:

In an effort to identify novel candidate regulators of adipogenesis, gene profiling of differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was analyzed using a novel algorithm. We report here the characterization of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) as a novel regulator of adipogenesis. XOR lies downstream of C/EBPbeta and upstream of PPARgamma, in the cascade of factors that control adipogenesis, and it regulates PPARgamma activity. In vitro, knockdown of XOR inhibits adipogenesis and PPARgamma activity while constitutive overexpression increases activity of the PPARgamma receptor in both adipocytes and preadipocytes. In vivo, XOR -/- mice demonstrate 50% reduction in adipose mass versus wild-type littermates while obese ob/ob mice exhibit increased concentrations of XOR mRNA and urate in the adipose tissue. We propose that XOR is a novel regulator of adipogenesis and of PPARgamma activity and essential for the regulation of fat accretion. Our results identify XOR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic abnormalities beyond hyperuricemia.