Vitamin D supplementation and depression in the women's health initiative calcium and vitamin D trial.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

American journal of epidemiology, Volume 176, Issue 1, p.1-13 (2012)

Keywords:

Aged, Antidepressive Agents, August 2012, Calcium, Cholecalciferol, Depression, Double-Blind Method, Drug Administration Schedule, Drug Therapy, Combination, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Logistic Models, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Public Health Sciences Division, Self Report, Treatment Outcome, Vitamins

Abstract:

While observational studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of depression, few clinical trials have tested whether vitamin D supplementation affects the occurrence of depression symptoms. The authors evaluated the impact of daily supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D(3) combined with 1,000 mg of elemental calcium on measures of depression in a randomized, double-blinded US trial comprising 36,282 postmenopausal women. The Burnam scale and current use of antidepressant medication were used to assess depressive symptoms at randomization (1995-2000). Two years later, women again reported on their antidepressant use, and 2,263 completed a second Burnam scale. After 2 years, women randomized to receive vitamin D and calcium had an odds ratio for experiencing depressive symptoms (Burnam score ≥0.06) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.56) compared with women in the placebo group. Supplementation was not associated with antidepressant use (odds ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.92, 1.12) or continuous depressive symptom score. Results stratified by baseline vitamin D and calcium intake, solar irradiance, and other factors were similar. The findings do not support a relation between supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin D(3) along with calcium and depression in older women. Additional trials testing higher doses of vitamin D are needed to determine whether this nutrient may help prevent or treat depression.