Urinary lead exposure and breast cancer risk in a population-based case-control study.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, Volume 17, Issue 9, p.2311-7 (2008)


2008, Adult, Aged, Breast Neoplasms, Case-Control Studies, Female, Humans, Lead, Logistic Models, Middle Aged, Public Health Sciences Division, Questionnaires, Registries, Tumor Markers, Biological, Wisconsin


Lead is a toxic nonessential metal with widespread exposure starting in utero. Lead has been reclassified in 2004 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group from a "possible" to a "probable" human carcinogen. Lead may be a facilitative or permissive carcinogen, which means that lead may permit or augment the genotoxic effects of other exposures.