Transforming Growth Factor-{beta}-Stimulated Clone-22 Is an Androgen-Regulated Gene That Enhances Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer following Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Receptor Inhibition.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Volume 15, Issue 24, p.7634-7641 (2009)


2009, Center-Authored Paper, Genomics Core Facility, Human Biology Division, Shared Resources


PURPOSE: Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling using the human IGF-I receptor monoclonal antibody A12 is most effective at inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer xenografts in the presence of androgen. We undertook this study to determine mechanisms for increased apoptosis by A12 in the presence of androgens. Experimental Methods: The castrate-resistant human xenograft LuCaP 35 V was implanted into intact or castrate severe combined immunodeficient mice and treated with A12 weekly. After 6 weeks of tumor growth, animals were sacrificed and tumors were removed and analyzed for cell cycle distribution/apoptosis and cDNA arrays were done. RESULTS: In castrate mice, the tumors were delayed in G(2) with no apoptosis; in contrast, tumors from intact mice underwent apoptosis with either G(1) or G(2) delay. Transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated clone-22 (TSC-22) was significantly elevated in tumors from the intact mice compared with castrate mice, especially in those tumors with the highest levels of apoptosis. To further determine the function of TSC-22, we transfected various human prostate cancer cell lines with a plasmid expressing TSC-22. Cell lines overexpressing TSC-22 showed an increase in apoptosis and a delay in G(1). When these cell lines were placed subcutaneously in athymic nude mice, a decreased number of animals formed tumors and the rate of tumor growth was decreased compared with control tumors. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that IGF-I receptor inhibition in the presence of androgen has an enhanced effect on decreasing tumor growth, in part, through increased expression of the tumor suppressor gene TSC-22. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7634-41).