Systemic production of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in nonhuman primates by transplantation of genetically modified myoblasts.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Human gene therapy, Volume 11, Issue 9, p.1277-88 (2000)


Animals, beta-Galactosidase, Cell Division, CELL TRANSPLANTATION, Dystrophin, gene expression, Gene Transfer Techniques, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor, Humans, Injections, Intramuscular, Macaca mulatta, MICE, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, SCID, Muscle, Skeletal, Neutrophils, Recombinant Proteins, Time Factors


Clinical use of human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) to treat various diseases involving neutropenia has been previously shown to (1) successfully increase circulating neutrophils, (2) reduce condition-related infections, and (3) cause few side effects in patients. To alleviate the symptoms of neutropenia, the patient must receive frequent injections of recombinant hG-CSF. Permanent ways to deliver stable levels of the molecule to the patient are being investigated. Among them, the transplantation of hG-CSF-secreting cells has been proposed and performed successfully in rodents, using fibroblast cell lines and primary muscle cells. We thus investigated whether similar results could be obtained by intramuscular myoblast transplantation in a large animal model. When 1-3 x 10(8) myoblasts were injected into three Macaca mulatta, hG-CSF was detected at high levels (300-900 pg/ml), which in turn led to a four- to fivefold increase in circulating neutrophils. However, both the concentrations of hG-CSF and neutrophil levels were found to decrease over time. Nonetheless, neutrophils were found at higher levels from the fourth week until the end the experiment (up to 29 weeks) in G-CSF monkeys compared with control animals. These results show that transplantation of hG-CSF-secreting myoblasts may indeed be a therapeutic option for the treatment of neutropenic patients.