Response of Steroid-Refractory Acute GVHD to α1-Antitrypsin.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Volume 22, Issue 9, p.1596-1601 (2016)


α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a serine protease inhibitor with anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and immunomodulatory properties. It has therapeutic efficacy in animal models of autoimmune diseases, inflammatory disorders, and transplantation. In a phase I/II open-label single-center study, we administered AAT (Glassia; Baxalta/Kamada, New Ziona, Israel) as salvage therapy to 12 patients with steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). AAT was given i.v. at 2 dose levels over a 15-day course. All patients had grades III or IV GVHD with stage 4 gut involvement. After treatment, plasma AAT levels increased in both cohorts and remained within 2 to 4 mg/mL for the duration of treatment. No clinically relevant toxicities attributable to AAT were observed. GVHD manifestations improved in 8 of 12 patients, and 4 responses were complete. Six patients (50%) were alive at last follow-up (>104 to >820 days). These findings show that AAT is well tolerated and has efficacy in the treatment of steroid-refractory severe acute GVHD. Further studies are warranted.