Quotidian changes of genital tract cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected women during the menstrual cycle.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Open forum infectious diseases, Volume 1, Issue 1, p.ofu002 (2014)


The role of hormonal changes throughout the menstrual cycle on genital tract inflammation during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is not well defined, but it has implications for HIV prevention. We assessed daily levels of 26 vaginal cytokines and chemokines from 15 women infected with HIV-1. Taking into account coexisting sexually transmitted infections, behavioral factors, and menstruation, this study illustrates cyclic patterns of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-α2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Progesterone was associated with levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-1α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Interferon-α2, IL-6, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNF-α levels predicted HIV shedding, but these associations were heavily influenced by the menstrual cycle.