Placebo adherence, clinical outcomes, and mortality in the women's health initiative randomized hormone therapy trials.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Medical care, Volume 49, Issue 5, p.427-35 (2011)


2011, Cause of Death, Estrogen Replacement Therapy, Female, Hip Fractures, Humans, Medication Adherence, Middle Aged, Mortality, Myocardial Infarction, Neoplasms, Placebo Effect, Placebos, Proportional Hazards Models, Public Health Sciences Division, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Risk Factors, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome


Medication adherence may be a proxy for healthy behaviors and other factors that affect outcomes. Prior studies of the association between placebo adherence and health outcomes have been limited primarily to men enrolled in clinical trials and cardiovascular disease outcomes. We examined associations between adherence to placebo and the risk of fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality in the 2 Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy randomized trials.