A Phase I/II Study of Chemotherapy Followed by Donor Lymphocyte Infusion plus Interleukin-2 for Relapsed Acute Leukemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Volume 17, Issue 9, p.1308-15 (2011)

Keywords:

2011, Acute Disease, Antineoplastic Agents, Center-Authored Paper, Clinical Research Division, Graft vs Host Disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Humans, Interleukin-2, LEUKEMIA, Lymphocyte Transfusion, Maximum Tolerated Dose, Research Trials Office Core Facility - Biostatistics Service, Salvage Therapy, September 2011, Shared Resources, Transplantation, Homologous

Abstract:

The efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) for treatment of relapsed acute leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is limited. We hypothesized that interleukin-2 (IL-2) combined with DLI after chemotherapy might augment graft-versus-leukemia effects. To identify a safe and effective IL-2 regimen, a phase I/II study of DLI plus IL-2 therapy was performed for such patients. After chemotherapy, 17 patients received DLI (1 × 10(8) CD3/kg for patients with related donors, and 0.1 × 10(8) CD3/kg for those with unrelated donors) and an escalating dose of induction IL-2 (1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 × 10(6) IU/m(2)/day representing levels I [n = 7], Ia [n = 9], and II [n = 1]) for 5 days followed by maintenance (1.0 × 10(6) IU/m(2)/day) for 10 days as a continuous intravenous infusion. Unacceptable IL-2-related toxicities developed in 1 patient at level I, 2 at level Ia, and 1 at level II. Grades III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) developed in 5 patients, and extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) developed in 8. Eight patients had a complete remission after chemotherapy prior to DLI, and 2 additional patients had a complete remission after DLI plus IL-2 therapy. In conclusion, the maximal tolerated induction dose of IL-2 combined with DLI appears to be 1.0 × 10(6) IU/m(2)/day. IL-2 administration after DLI might increase the incidence of cGVHD.