Oestrogen plus progestin and lung cancer in postmenopausal women (Women's Health Initiative trial): a post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Lancet, Volume 374, Issue 9697, p.1243-51 (2009)


2009, Aged, Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung, Cause of Death, Clinical Research Division, Double-Blind Method, Estrogen Replacement Therapy, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Incidence, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Lung Neoplasms, Middle Aged, Postmenopause, Proportional Hazards Models, Public Health Sciences Division, Risk Factors, Smoking, United States, Women's Health


In the post-intervention period of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial, women assigned to treatment with oestrogen plus progestin had a higher risk of cancer than did those assigned to placebo. Results also suggested that the combined hormone therapy might increase mortality from lung cancer. To assess whether such an association exists, we undertook a post-hoc analysis of lung cancers diagnosed in the trial over the entire follow-up period.