New Strategies in Metastatic Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: Searching for Biomarkers to Tailor Endocrine and other Targeted Therapies.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2016)


While major advances in our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of hormone receptor-positive (HR-positive) breast cancer have led to new therapies that have substantially improved in patient outcomes, endocrine-resistant disease still remains a leading cause of breast cancer mortality. Comprehensive molecular profiling of breast cancers has highlighted tremendous tumor heterogeneity, and analysis of paired primary and metastatic tumors has shown the evolution that can occur during acquired resistance to systemic therapies. Novel techniques for monitoring tumor load under treatment pressure, including "liquid biopsy" techniques, such as circulating free tumor DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells(CTCs), have shown promise as biomarkers to direct treatment without invasive tumor biopsies. However, more research is needed to deepen our understanding of breast cancer alterations under treatment pressure in order to reveal mechanisms of drug resistance and apply precision medicine in biomarker-driven clinical trials.