NCI, NHLBI/PBMTC First International Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Endocrine Challenges-Thyroid Dysfunction, Growth Impairment, Bone Health, & Reproductive Risks.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Volume 17, Issue 12, p.1725-38 (2011)


2011, Clinical Research Division, November 2011


The endocrine system is highly susceptible to damage by high-dose chemotherapy and/or irradiation before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) during childhood. The specific endocrine organs most affected by HCT include the thyroid gland, the pituitary, and the gonads. In addition, hormones that support development and stability of the skeletal system are also affected. Insufficiency of thyroid hormone is 1 of the most common late sequelae of HCT, and occurs more often in young children. Deficiency in the pituitary's production of growth hormone is a problem of unique concern to the pediatric population. The reproductive risks of HCT depend on the patient's gender and pubertal status at the time of HCT. Pubertal or gonadal failure frequently occurs, especially in females. Infertility risks for both genders remain high, whereas methods of fertility preservation are limited in all but postpubertal males. Bone health post-HCT can be compromised by low bone mineral density as well as avascular necrosis, but the data on both problems in the pediatric HCT population are limited. In this paper, the current state of knowledge, gaps in that knowledge, and recommendations for future research are addressed in detail for each of these systems.