A multicenter trial of myeloablative clofarabine and busulfan conditioning for relapsed or primary induction failure AML not in remission at the time of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Bone marrow transplantation (2016)


Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) may produce long-term survival in AML after relapse or primary induction failure (PIF). However, outcomes of HCT performed for AML not in remission are historically poor given high relapse rates and transplant-related mortality. Preliminary studies suggest conditioning with clofarabine and myeloablative busulfan (CloBu4) may exert significant anti-leukemic effects without excessive toxicity in refractory hematologic malignancies. A prospective multicenter phase II trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of CloBu4 for patients proceeding directly to HCT with AML not in remission. Seventy-one patients (median age: 56 years) received CloBu4. At day 30 after HCT, 90% achieved morphologic remission. The incidence of non-relapse mortality and relapse at 2 years was 25% and 55%, respectively. The 2-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 26% and 20%, respectively. Patients entering HCT in PIF had significantly greater EFS than those in relapse (34% vs 8%; P<0.01). Multivariate analysis comparing CloBu4 with a contemporaneous cohort (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research) of AML not in remission receiving other myeloablative conditioning (n=105) demonstrated similar OS (HR: 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.92-1.92; P=0.12). HCT with myeloablative CloBu4 is associated with high early response rates and may produce durable remissions in select patients with AML not in remission.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 18 July 2016; doi:10.1038/bmt.2016.188.