Identification of Hyal2 as the cell-surface receptor for jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and ovine nasal adenocarcinoma virus.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Authors:

Miller, A D

Source:

Current topics in microbiology and immunology, Volume 275, p.179-99 (2003)

Keywords:

ADENOCARCINOMA, Animals, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Cell Line, Cricetinae, Genetic Vectors, GPI-Linked Proteins, Humans, Hyaluronoglucosaminidase, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, Models, Genetic, Nose Neoplasms, Phylogeny, Pulmonary Adenomatosis, Ovine, Receptors, Virus, Retroviridae, Retroviridae Infections, Sheep, Sheep Diseases, Transfection

Abstract:

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and ovine nasal adenocarcinoma virus (ONAV) replicate in the airway and cause epithelial cell tumors through the activity of their envelope (Env) proteins. Identification of the receptor(s) that mediate cell entry by these viruses is crucial to understanding the oncogenic activity of Env and for the development of gene therapy vectors based on these viruses that are capable of targeting airway cells. To identify the viral receptor(s) and to further study the biology of JSRV and ONAV, we developed retroviral vectors containing Moloney murine leukemia virus components and the Env proteins of JSRV or ONAV. We used a new technique involving positional cloning by phenotypic mapping in radiation hybrid cells to identify and clone the human receptor for JSRV, Hyal2, which also serves as the receptor for ONAV. Hyal2 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell-surface protein that has low hyaluronidase activity and is a member of a large family that includes sperm hyaluronidase (Spam) and serum hyaluronidase (Hyal1). Hyal2 is located in a region of human chromosome 3p21.3 that is often deleted in lung cancer, suggesting that it may be a tumor suppressor. However, its role in JSRV or ONAV tumorigenesis, if any, is still unclear. JSRV vectors are capable of transducing various human cells, and are being further evaluated for gene therapy purposes.