HIV-specific CD4-induced Antibodies Mediate Broad and Potent Antibody-dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Activity and are Commonly Detected in Plasma from HIV-infected Humans.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

EBioMedicine, Volume 2, Issue 10, p.1464-1477 (2015)

Keywords:

Genomics Core Facility

Abstract:

HIV-specific antibodies (Abs) can reduce viral burden by blocking new rounds of infection or by destroying infected cells via activation of effector cells through Fc-FcR interaction. This latter process, referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), has been associated with viral control and improved clinical outcome following both HIV and SIV infections. Here we describe an HIV viral-like particle (VLP)-based sorting strategy that led to identification of HIV-specific memory B cells encoding Abs that mediate ADCC from a subtype A-infected Kenyan woman at 914 days post-infection. Using this strategy, 12 HIV-envelope-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were isolated and three mediated potent ADCC activity when compared to well-characterized ADCC mAbs. The ADCC-mediating Abs also mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), which provides a net measure of Fc receptor-triggered effects against replicating virus. Two of the three ADCC-mediating Abs targeted a CD4-induced (CD4i) epitope also bound by the mAb C11; the third antibody targeted the N-terminus of V3. Both CD4i Abs identified here demonstrated strong cross-clade breadth with activity against 10 of 11 envelopes tested, including those from clades A, B, C, A/D and C/D, whereas the V3-specific antibody showed more limited breadth. Variants of these CD4i, C11-like mAbs engineered to interrupt binding to FcγRs inhibited a measurable percentage of the donor's ADCC activity starting as early as 189 days post-infection. C11-like antibodies also accounted for between 18-78% of ADCC activity in 9 chronically infected individuals from the same cohort study. Further, the two CD4i Abs originated from unique B cells, suggesting that antibodies targeting this epitope can be commonly produced. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that CD4i, C11-like antibodies develop within the first 6 months of infection and they can arise from unique B-cell lineages in the same individual. Further, these mAbs mediate potent plasma IgG-specific ADCC breadth and potency and contribute to ADCC activity in other HIV-infected individuals.