Hemizygosity for SMCHD1 in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Type 2: Consequences for 18p Deletion Syndrome.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Human mutation (2015)

Abstract:

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is most often associated with variegated expression in somatic cells of the normally repressed DUX4 gene within the D4Z4 repeat array. The most common form, FSHD1, is caused by a D4Z4 repeat array contraction to a size of 1-10 units (normal range 10-100 units). The less common form, FSHD2, is characterized by D4Z4 CpG hypomethylation and is most often caused by loss of function mutations in the structural maintenance of chromosomes hinge domain 1 (SMCHD1) gene on chromosome 18p. The chromatin modifier SMCHD1 is necessary to maintain a repressed D4Z4 chromatin state. Here we describe two FSHD2 families with a 1.2 Mb deletion encompassing the SMCHD1 gene. Numerical aberrations of chromosome 18 are relatively common and the majority of 18p deletion syndrome (18p-) cases have, like these FSHD2 families, only one copy of SMCHD1. Our finding therefore raises the possibility that 18p- cases are at risk of developing FSHD. To address this possibility, we combined genome wide array analysis data with D4Z4 CpG methylation and repeat array sizes in individuals with 18p- and conclude that approximately 1:8 18p- cases might be at risk of developing FSHD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.