Genetic risk factors for major bleeding in patients treated with warfarin in a community setting.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, Volume 95, Issue 6, p.636-43 (2014)


Aged, Anticoagulants, Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases, Case-Control Studies, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, diet, Drug Interactions, Ethnic Groups, Female, Genetic Association Studies, Hemorrhage, Humans, International Normalized Ratio, Male, Risk Factors, Sex Characteristics, Warfarin, Washington


The influence of warfarin pharmacogenomics on major bleeding risk has been little studied in long-term users and non-specialist care settings. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations between CYP2C9*2/*3, VKORC1(1173), and CYP4F2*3 variants and major bleeding among patients treated with warfarin in a community setting. We calculated major bleeding odds ratios, adjusting for race, duration of warfarin use, age, gender, and body mass index. In 265 cases and 305 controls with 3.4 and 3.7 mean years of warfarin use, respectively, CYP4F2*3 was associated with decreased major bleeding risk (odds ratio: 0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.91). CYP2C9*2/*3 and VKORC1(1173) had null associations overall, but there was a nonsignificant increase in major bleeding risk in patients with duration <6 months (odds ratio: 1.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.60-2.83; odds ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-2.64, respectively). In summary, in the largest study of warfarin pharmacogenomics and major bleeding to date, we found a 38% lower risk in patients with CYP4F2*3, potentially reflecting interaction with warfarin and dietary vitamin K intake and warranting additional evaluation.