Fludarabine and 2-Gy TBI is Superior to 2 Gy TBI as Conditioning for HLA-Matched Related Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Phase III Randomized Trial.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Volume 19, Issue 9, p.1340-7 (2013)

Keywords:

2013, Center-Authored Paper, Clinical Research Division, Collaborative Data Services Core Facility, July 2013, Research Trials Office Core Facility - Biostatistics Service

Abstract:

The risks and benefits of adding fludarabine to a 2-Gy total body irradiation (TBI) nonmyeloablative regimen are unknown. For this reason, we conducted a prospective randomized trial comparing 2-Gy TBI alone, or in combination with 90 mg/m(2) fludarabine (FLU/TBI), before transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells from HLA-matched related donors. Eighty-five patients with hematological malignancies were randomized to be conditioned with TBI alone (n = 44) or FLU/TBI (n = 41). All patients had initial engraftment. Two graft rejections were observed, both in the TBI group. Infection rates, nonrelapse mortality, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were similar between groups. Three-year overall survival was lower in the TBI group (54% versus 65%; hazard ratio [HR], .57; P = .09), with higher incidences of relapse/progression (55% versus 40%; HR, .55; P = .06), relapse-related mortality (37% versus 28%; HR, .53; P = .09), and a lower progression-free survival (36% versus 53%; HR, .56; P = .05). Median donor T cell chimerism levels were significantly lower in the TBI group at days 28 (61% versus 90%; P < .0001) and 84 (68% versus 92%; P < .0001), as was NK cell chimerism on day 28 (75% versus 96%; P = .0005). In conclusion, this randomized trial demonstrates the importance of fludarabine in augmenting the graft-versus-tumor effect by ensuring prompt and durable high-level donor engraftment early after transplantation.