Evaluating principal surrogate endpoints with time-to-event data accounting for time-varying treatment efficacy.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Biostatistics (Oxford, England) (2013)


2013, January 2014, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division


Principal surrogate (PS) endpoints are relatively inexpensive and easy to measure study outcomes that can be used to reliably predict treatment effects on clinical endpoints of interest. Few statistical methods for assessing the validity of potential PSs utilize time-to-event clinical endpoint information and to our knowledge none allow for the characterization of time-varying treatment effects. We introduce the time-dependent and surrogate-dependent treatment efficacy curve, ${\mathrm {TE}}(t|s)$, and a new augmented trial design for assessing the quality of a biomarker as a PS. We propose a novel Weibull model and an estimated maximum likelihood method for estimation of the ${\mathrm {TE}}(t|s)$ curve. We describe the operating characteristics of our methods via simulations. We analyze data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, in which we find evidence of a biomarker with value as a PS.