Efficient insertion of genes into the mouse germ line via retroviral vectors.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 82, Issue 18, p.6148-52 (1985)


361, Animals, Defective Viruses, DNA Replication, DNA, Recombinant, DNA, Viral, Embryo Transfer, Embryo, Mammalian, Embryonic Development, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic Engineering, MICE, PREGNANCY, Retroviridae, Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase


We present a general strategy for the efficient insertion of recombinant retroviral vector DNA into the mouse germ line via infection of preimplantation mouse embryos. Transgenic mice were generated that harbor a replication-competent recombinant retrovirus (delta Mo + Py M-MuLV) that lacks the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV)-type enhancer sequence in the long terminal repeat (LTR). Instead, the LTR contains an enhancer element that permits polyoma virus F101 to grow in undifferentiated F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. Expression studies in different tissues of animals transgenic for delta Mo + Py M-MuLV indicate possibilities to target and modulate expression of retroviral recombinants in mice via their LTR enhancer sequences. In addition, 16 transgenic mice were generated that harbor proviral DNA of a defective recombinant retrovirus carrying a mutant dihydrofolate reductase gene.