Effect of Vitamin D3 supplementation in combination with weight loss on inflammatory biomarkers in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.), Volume 8, Issue 7, p.628-35 (2015)


Prevention Center Core Facility


Obesity and vitamin D deficiency are associated with risk for several cancers, possibly through inflammation and adipokine-related pathways. 218 postmenopausal women with BMI>25 kg/m2 and low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D; ≥10-<32 ng/mL), were randomized to 12-months of either (i)weight-loss intervention + 2000 IU/day oral vitamin D3 or (ii)weight-loss intervention + daily placebo. Serum adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin (IL)-6; IL-1β; IL-8 and IL-10, were measured by immunoassay, and a composite inflammatory biomarker score calculated. Using generalized estimating equations, mean changes in outcomes were compared between arms (intent-to-treat), adjusted for possible confounders. Analyses were also stratified by weight-loss (gained/no weight-loss; <5%; 5-10%; >10%). At 12-months, there were no significant differences in analyte changes between arms. In stratified analyses, participants randomized to vitamin D3 who lost 5-10% of baseline weight, vs. participants who gained weight/had no weight-loss, had significantly greater decreases in levels of IL-6 compared to those randomized to placebo: absolute change -0.75 pg/mL (-17.2%) Placebo vs. -1.77 pg/mL (-37.3%) Vitamin D, P=0.004. Similar but attenuated results were observed for participants who lost >10% of baseline weight: -0.41 pg/mL (-13.6%) Placebo vs. -0.67 pg/mL (-17.3%) Vitamin D, P=0.02. Effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on levels of IL-1β were inconsistent when stratified by weight loss. There were no intervention effects on IL-10, TNF-α, IL-8, the composite score, adiponectin or leptin, when stratified by weight-loss. In conclusion, Vitamin D3 supplementation in combination with weight-loss of at least 5% of baseline weight was associated with significant reductions in levels of IL-6.