Effect of Pritelivir Compared With Valacyclovir on Genital HSV-2 Shedding in Patients With Frequent Recurrences: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


JAMA, Volume 316, Issue 23, p.2495-2503 (2016)


Importance: Current therapy of herpes infections relies on nucleoside analogues. Pritelivir is a well-tolerated novel herpes simplex virus (HSV) helicase-primase inhibitor that reduced genital shedding and lesions.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of pritelivir with valacyclovir for suppression of genital HSV-2 infection.

Design, Setting, and Participants: A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial at clinical research centers in 4 US cities (October 2012-July 2013) compared daily oral doses of 100 mg of pritelivir with 500 mg of valacyclovir. The planned sample size was 98 adults, allowing for detection of a 50% reduction in viral shedding between the study treatments. Healthy adults with 4 to 9 annual genital HSV-2 recurrences were eligible. Ninety-one participants were randomized to receive pritelivir and 46 to receive valacyclovir first when the US Food and Drug Administration placed the trial on clinical hold based on findings in a concurrent nonclinical toxicity study, and the sponsor terminated the study.

Interventions: Participants took the first drug for 28 days followed by 28 days of washout before taking the second drug for 28 days. Throughout treatment, the participants collected genital swabs 4 times daily for testing by HSV polymerase chain reaction assays.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was within-participant genital HSV shedding while receiving pritelivir compared with valacyclovir. Secondary end points included the quantity of HSV in positive swabs and the frequency of genital lesions and shedding episodes.

Results: Of the 91 randomized participants (median age, 48 years; 57 women [63%]), 56 had completed both treatment periods at the time of the study's termination. In intent-to-treat analyses, HSV shedding was detected in 2.4% (173 of 7276 ) of swabs during pritelivir treatment compared with 5.3% (392 of 7453) during valacyclovir treatment (relative risk [RR], 42; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.82; P = .01). In swabs with HSV, the mean quantity of HSV was 3.2 log10 copies/mL during pritelivir treatment vs 3.7 log10 copies/mL during valacyclovir treatment (difference, -0.1; 95% CI, -0.6 to 0.5; P = .83). Genital lesions were present on 1.9% of days in the pritelivir group vs 3.9% in the valacyclovir group (RR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.17-0.96; P = .04). The frequency of shedding episodes did not differ by group, with 1.3 per person-month for pritelivir and 1.6 per person-month for valacyclovir (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.22; P = .29). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 62.3% of participants in the pritelivir group and 69.2% of participants in the valacyclovir group.

Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with frequently recurring genital HSV-2, the use of pritelivir compared with valacyclovir resulted in a lower percentage of swabs with HSV detection over 28 days. Further research is needed to assess longer-term efficacy and safety.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01658826.