DNA Replication Stress Phosphoproteome Profiles Reveal Novel Functional Phosphorylation Sites on Xrs2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Genetics, Volume 203, Issue 1, p.353-368 (2016)

Abstract:

In response to replication stress, a phospho-signaling cascade is activated and required for coordination of DNA repair and replication of damaged templates (intra-S phase checkpoint). How phospho-signaling coordinates the DNA replication stress response is largely unknown. We employed state-of-the-art liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches to generate high-coverage and quantitative proteomic and phospho-proteomic profiles during replication stress in yeast, induced by continuous exposure to the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). We identified 32,057 unique peptides representing the products of 4,296 genes, and 22,061 unique phosphopeptides representing the products of 3,183 genes. 542 phosphopeptides (mapping to 339 genes) demonstrated an abundance change of ≥ 2-fold in response to MMS. The screen enabled detection of nearly all of the proteins known to be involved in the DNA damage response, as well as many novel MMS-induced phosphorylations. We assessed the functional importance of a subset of key phosphosites by engineering a panel of phosphosite mutants, in which an amino acid substitution prevents phosphorylation. In total, we successfully mutated 15 MMS-responsive phosphorylation sites in 7 representative genes including:APN1(base excision repair);CTF4andTOF1(checkpoint and sister chromatid cohesion);MPH1(resolution of HR intermediates);RAD50andXRS2(MRX complex); andRAD18(PRR). All of these phosphorylation site mutants exhibited MMS-sensitivity, indicating an important role in protecting cells from DNA damage. In particular, we identified MMS-induced phosphorylation sites on Xrs2 that are required for MMS resistance in the absence of the MRX activator, Sae2, and that affect telomere maintenance.