Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


American journal of epidemiology, Volume 167, Issue 8, p.925-34 (2008)


2008, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Alcohol Drinking, Center-Authored Paper, diet, Dietary Supplements, Finasteride, Food Habits, Humans, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Nutrition Assessment Core Facility, Nutrition Surveys, Nutritional Status, Odds Ratio, Prospective Studies, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Neoplasms, PROTEINS, Public Health Sciences Division, Questionnaires, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Shared Resources, United States


This study examined dietary risk factors for incident benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in 4,770 Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (1994-2003) placebo-arm participants who were free of BPH at baseline. BPH was assessed over 7 years and was defined as medical or surgical treatment or repeated elevation (>14) on the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire. Diet, alcohol, and supplement use were assessed by use of a food frequency questionnaire. There were 876 incident BPH cases (33.6/1,000 person-years). The hazard ratios for the contrasts of the highest to lowest quintiles increased 31% for total fat and 27% for polyunsaturated fat and decreased 15% for protein (all p(trend) < 0.05). The risk was significantly lower in high consumers of alcoholic beverages (0 vs. > or =2/day: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.67) and vegetables (<1 vs. > or =4/day: HR = 0.68) and higher in daily (vs. <1/week) consumers of red meat (HR = 1.38). There were no associations of supplemental antioxidants with risk, and there was weak evidence for associations of lycopene, zinc, and supplemental vitamin D with reduced risk. A diet low in fat and red meat and high in protein and vegetables, as well as regular alcohol consumption, may reduce the risk of symptomatic BPH.