Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Disease Risk among Participants in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


The Journal of nutrition, Volume 142, Issue 2, p.284-91 (2012)


2012, Aged, Aging, Case-Control Studies, Center-Authored Paper, Cluster Analysis, Consortium Authored Paper, Coronary Disease, diet, Ethnic Groups, Female, Food Habits, Humans, Jan 12, January 2012, Logistic Models, Middle Aged, Nutrition Assessment Core Facility, Odds Ratio, Principal Component Analysis, Public Health Sciences Division, Risk Factors, Shared Resources, Women's Health


Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women. A nested case-control study tested whether dietary patterns predicted CHD events among 1224 participants in the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS) with centrally confirmed CHD, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarct compared to 1224 WHI-OS controls matched for age, enrollment date, race/ethnicity, and absence of CHD at baseline or follow-up. The first six principal components explained >75% of variation in dietary intakes and K-mean analysis based on these six components produced three clusters. Diet cluster 1 was rich in carbohydrate, vegetable protein, fiber, dietary vitamin K, folate, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)], linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)], and supplemental calcium and vitamin D. Diet cluster 2 was rich in total and animal protein, arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)], DHA [22:6(n-3)], vitamin D, and calcium. Diet cluster 3 was rich in energy, total fat, and trans fatty acids (all P < 0.01). Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated diet cluster 1 was associated with lower CHD risk than diet cluster 2 (reference group) adjusted for smoking, education, and physical activity [OR = 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64, 0.99); P = 0.038]. This difference was not significant after adjustment for BMI and systolic blood pressure. Diet cluster 3 was associated with higher CHD risk than diet cluster 2 [OR = 1.28 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.57); P = 0.019], but this difference did not remain significant after adjustment for smoking, education, and physical activity. Within this WHI-OS cohort, distinct dietary patterns may be associated with subsequent CHD outcomes.