Defective cranial skeletal development, larval lethality and haploinsufficiency in Myod mutant zebrafish.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Developmental biology, Volume 358, Issue 1, p.102-12 (2011)


2011, Animals Bone and Bones, Basic Sciences Division, Cartilage, Center-Authored Paper, Comparative Medicine Core Facility, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Haploinsufficiency, Immunohistochemistry, In Situ Hybridization, Larva, Muscle Development, Muscle, Skeletal, Mutation, MyoD Protein, September 2011, Shared Resources, Skull, Upper Extremity, zebrafish


Myogenic regulatory factors of the myod family (MRFs) are transcription factors essential for mammalian skeletal myogenesis. Here we show that a mutation in the zebrafish myod gene delays and reduces early somitic and pectoral fin myogenesis, reduces miR-206 expression, and leads to a persistent reduction in somite size until at least the independent feeding stage. A mutation in myog, encoding a second MRF, has little obvious phenotype at early stages, but exacerbates the loss of somitic muscle caused by lack of Myod. Mutation of both myod and myf5 ablates all skeletal muscle. Haploinsufficiency of myod leads to reduced embryonic somite muscle bulk. Lack of Myod causes a severe reduction in cranial musculature, ablating most muscles including the protractor pectoralis, a putative cucullaris homologue. This phenotype is accompanied by a severe dysmorphology of the cartilaginous skeleton and failure of maturation of several cranial bones, including the opercle. As myod expression is restricted to myogenic cells, the data show that myogenesis is essential for proper skeletogenesis in the head.