Cruciferous vegetable feeding alters UGT1A1 activity: diet- and genotype-dependent changes in serum bilirubin in a controlled feeding trial.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.), Volume 2, Issue 4, p.345-52 (2009)


2009, Adult, Bilirubin, Center-Authored Paper, Cross-Over Studies, diet, Female, Genotype, Glucuronosyltransferase, Glutathione Transferase, Humans, Male, Nutrition Assessment Core Facility, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Prevention Center Core Facility, Public Health Sciences Division, Shared Resources, Specimen Processing Core Facility, Vegetables


Chemoprevention by isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables occurs partly through up-regulation of phase II conjugating enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). UGT1A1 glucuronidates bilirubin, estrogens, and several dietary carcinogens. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism reduces transcription compared with the wild-type, resulting in decreased enzyme activity. Isothiocyanates are metabolized by glutathione S-transferases (GST); variants may alter isothiocyanate clearance such that response to crucifers may vary by genotype. We evaluated, in a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial in humans (n = 70), three test diets (single- and double-"dose" cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous) compared with a fruit and vegetable-free basal diet. We measured serum bilirubin concentrations on days 0, 7, 11, and 14 of each 2-week feeding period to monitor UGT1A1 activity and determined effects of UGT1A1*28 and GSTM1/GSTT1-null variants on response. Aggregate bilirubin response to all vegetable-containing diets was statistically significantly lower compared with the basal diet (P < 0.03 for all). Within each UGT1A1 genotype, lower bilirubin concentrations were seen in *1/*1 in both single- and double-dose cruciferous diets compared with basal (P < 0.03 for both); *1/*28 in double-dose cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared with basal, and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared with single-dose cruciferous (P < 0.02 for all); and *28/*28 in all vegetable-containing diets compared with basal (P < 0.02 for all). Evaluation of the effects of diet stratified by GST genotype revealed some statistically significant genotypic differences; however, the magnitude was similar and not statistically significant between genotypes. These results may have implications for altering carcinogen metabolism through dietary intervention, particularly among UGT1A1*28/*28 individuals.