Biomarker-calibrated energy and protein consumption and cardiovascular disease risk among postmenopausal women.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), Volume 22, Issue 2, p.170-9 (2011)


2011, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Biological Markers, Body Mass Index, Cardiovascular Diseases, Center-Authored Paper, Confidence Intervals, Dietary Proteins, Energy Intake, Female, Humans, Middle Aged, Nutrition Assessment Core Facility, Nutrition Surveys, Postmenopause, Public Health Sciences Division, Risk Assessment, Shared Resources, United States


Nutritional epidemiology cohort studies primarily use food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). In part because FFQs are more reliable for nutrient densities than for absolute nutrient consumption, reports from association studies typically present only nutrient density measures in relation to disease risk.