M.D., Medical University of South Carolina, 1980.
Ph.D., Medical University of South Carolina, 1978.
Protection and Control of HIV-1 Infection by T Cell Immunity.
Our laboratory seeks to identify the components of immunity that are important in preventing and controlling HIV-1 infection. Our goal is to understand how T cell memory is induced both in natural infection and by immunization, and to identify the properties of T cells that confer containment or eradiation of HIV-1.
Our studies encompass a broad range of immunologic investigations in persons who experience unusual control of HIV-1 infection. These include individuals with newly diagnosed infection, those with long-term non-progressive disease who control infection for more than a decade without antiretroviral treatment, and individuals repeatedly exposed but not infected. These clinical cohorts have been assembled for longitudinal studies in both Seattle and in countries where the HIV epidemic is widespread (South Africa, Uganda). Most recent studies focus on African HIV discordant couples, providing a unique opportunity to address host characteristics that lead to altered susceptibility to infection and transmission. In addition, we have targeted studies to gain further understanding of how HIV-1 gains entry into the mucosa and the induction of HIV-specific mucosal immunity.
We also devote extensive efforts to HIV-1 vaccine development. First, we lead a large collaborative project to identify innate immune mechanisms that may enhance adaptive immunological memory to HIV. Further, our laboratory program oversees the evaluation of multiple candidate vaccines in a international vaccine network, which provides basic insights into how different vaccine modalities elicit optimal B- and T-cell immunity to HIV-1 that may be ultimately protective against infection and disease.
American College of Physicians
Association of American Physicians
National Institute of Health AIDS Vaccine Research Subcommittee
Honors and Awards
2008, M. Juliana McElrath, American College of Physicians, Fellowship
2000-2006, M. Juliana McElrath, Burroughs Wellcome, Clinical Scientist Award in Translational Research
1997, M. Juliana McElrath, National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Merit Award
HIV-1 therapy with monoclonal antibody 3BNC117 elicits host immune responses against HIV-1.. Science (New York, N.Y.). 352(6288):997-1001.. 2016.
Regulatory T-cell activity but not conventional HIV-specific T-cell responses are associated with protection from HIV-1 infection.. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 72(2):119-128.. 2016.
CXCL13 is a plasma biomarker of germinal center activity.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2016.
Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial.. Annals of internal medicine.. 2016.
Herpes Simplex Virus Suppressive Therapy in Herpes Simplex Virus-2/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Coinfected Women Is Associated With Reduced Systemic CXCL10 But Not Genital Cytokines.. Sexually transmitted diseases. 43(12):761-764.. 2016.
Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.. PloS one. 11(5):e0156293.. 2016.
Vaccination with heterologous HIV envelope sequences and heterologous adenovirus vectors increases T cell responses to conserved regions (HVTN 083).. The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2015.
T Cell Responses against Mycobacterial Lipids and Proteins Are Poorly Correlated in South African Adolescents.. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 195(10):4595-4603.. 2015.
Plasma Cytokine Levels and Risk of HIV Type 1 (HIV-1) Transmission and Acquisition: A Nested Case-Control Study Among HIV-1-Serodiscordant Couples.. The Journal of infectious diseases. 211(9):1451-60.. 2015.
Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Adenovirus Serotype 35-Vectored HIV-1 Vaccine in Adenovirus Serotype 5 Seronegative and Seropositive Individuals.. Journal of AIDS & clinical research. 6(5). 2015.
HIV-1 single-stranded RNA induces CXCL13 secretion in human monocytes via TLR7 activation and plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived type I IFN.. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 194(6):2769-75.. 2015.
COMPASS identifies T-cell subsets correlated with clinical outcomes.. Nature biotechnology. 33(6):610-6.. 2015.
HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition.. Science translational medicine. 7(296):296ra112.. 2015.
HIV-1 integration landscape during latent and active infection.. Cell. 160(3):420-32.. 2015.
Use of placebos in Phase 1 preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials.. Vaccine. 33(6):749-52.. 2015.
Identification of effective subdominant anti-HIV-1 CD8+ T cells within entire post-infection and post-vaccination immune responses.. PLoS pathogens. 11(2):e1004658.. 2015.