N.R.C.C., Clinical Chemistry, 1992.
D.A.B.C.C., Clinical Chemistry, 1992.
Clinical Chemistry Fellow, University of Washington, Laboratory Medicine, 1992.
Postdoc Research Associate, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Molecular Virology, 1990.
Postdoc Fellow, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Biochemistry Oncology, 1986.
Ph.D., University of Washington, Biochemistry, 1982.
M.S., Ohio State University, Botany, 1971.
B.S., National Taiwan University, Botany, 1968.
For most recent work on differentially expressed genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma, please click the homepage link in the Contact Information section on this page.
A major emphasis of my research has been to understand the possible role of metabolic enzymes in the activation and detoxification of potential carcinogens in the environment, as well as steroid hormones and growth factors, in the etiology of cancer. Of particular interest is the contribution of genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes and receptor molecules for hormones and growth factors to susceptibility to cancer.
In collaboration with epidemiologists, my laboratory has been conducting molecular epidemiologic studies to examine the potential association of polymorphisms of certain genes (such as CYP2D6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, NAT1, NAT2, NQO1, etc.), that may play an important role in the activation or detoxification of potential carcinogens that are found in tobacco smoke or are derived from food sources, with the incidence of cancers of the oral cavity, nasopharynx, colon, anus, penis, cervix, vagina, and vulva, and of acute myelocytic leukemia. For cancers of the oral cavity, we are also examining their incidence in relation to alcohol consumption and polymorphisms of the alcohol dehydrogenase type 2 and type 3 genes. Recently, we have begun to use microarray technology to examine differential gene expression in oral cancers of different clinical stage.
Collaborative studies pertaining to hormonal carcinogenesis include: (1) polymorphisms of CYP17, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, catechol O-methyltransferase, glutathione S-transferases, and estrogen receptor in relation to the incidence of cancers of the breast and endometrium; (2) polymorphisms of the 5-alpha reductase type II gene (the 5-alpha reductase converts testosterone to a more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone) and the androgen receptor gene in relation to the incidence of prostate cancer; (3) polymorphisms of CYP11a, CYP17, 3-beta HSD type II, CYP3A4 and UGT2B15 and the incidence of testicular cancer.
Other studies pertain to the evaluation of prediagnostic levels of endogenous sex hormones (androstenedione, testosterone, 3 alpha diol glucuronide, estradiol), sex hormone binding globulin, and insulin-like growth factors and polymorphisms of insulin-like growth factor gene and insulin-like growth factor binding protein gene in relation to prostate cancer risk; the dietary influences on the activities of glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome 450 enzymes, and female hormone levels; the transcriptional regulation of glutathione S-transferases, and the evaluation of melatonin metabolism in relation to exposure to magnetic fields.
(Reading, Writing, Speaking)
Chinese, Mandarin: (Fluent, Fluent, Fluent)
English: (Fluent, Fluent, Fluent)
Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists
American Association for Cancer Research
American Association for Clinical Chemistry
Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium
International Academy of Oral Oncology
International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium
International Lung Cancer Consortium
International Society for the Studies of Xenobiotics
Honors and Awards
2005, Honoree, Women of Color Empowered, Northwest Asian Foundation
1991, Young Investigator Award, Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists
1983-1986, Postdoctoral Individual National Research Service Award, NCI, NIH
2001-2006, Affiliate Associate Professor, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery
2000-2006, Affiliate Associate Professor, University of Washington, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Epidemiology
1999-2005, Associate Member, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Public Health Sciences Division, Program in Epidemiology
1999-1999, Assistant Member, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Public Health Sciences Division, Program in Epidemiology
1995-1999, Assistant Member, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Public Health Sciences Division, Program in Cancer Biology
1992-1997, Founder and Director of Core Laboratory, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Public Health Sciences Division, Program in Cancer Biology
1992-1993, Clinical Chemist, Providence Hospital
1974-1976, Research Technician II, Case Western Reserve University, Surgery, Opthalmology, Project: Chemistry of Rhodopsin
1972-1972, Medical Mycologist/Microbiologist, W.A. Foote Memorial Hospital, Clinical Laboratory
1972-1974, Senior Research Technician, Michigan State University, Atomic Energy Commission Plant Research Laboratory, Physiology of Abscisic Acid and Xanthoxin
The role of oral hygiene in head and neck cancer: Results from International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium.. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO.. 2016.
GWAS meta-analysis of 16,852 women identifies new susceptibility locus for endometrial cancer.. Human molecular genetics.. 2016.
Consumption of alcoholic beverages in adolescence and adulthood and risk of testicular germ cell tumor.. International journal of cancer.. 2016.
Associations of Insulin and IGFBP-3 with Lung Cancer Susceptibility in Current Smokers.. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 108(7). 2016.
Mouthwash use and cancer of the head and neck: a pooled analysis from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.. European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP). 25(4):344-348.. 2016.
The causal relevance of body mass index in different histological types of lung cancer: A Mendelian randomization study.. Scientific reports. 6:31121.. 2016.
Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome.. Nature communications. 7:11843.. 2016.
Pre-diagnostic Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality in Relation to Subsequent Cancer Survival.. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. 12(4):495-503.. 2016.
Carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and prostate cancer risk: pooled analysis of 15 studies.. The American journal of clinical nutrition.. 2015.
Diabetes, metformin and incidence of and death from invasive cancer in postmenopausal women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer.. 2015.
Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk.. PloS one. 10(11):e0143256.. 2015.
Characterization of large structural genetic mosaicism in human autosomes.. American journal of human genetics. 96(3):487-97.. 2015.
Low frequency of cigarette smoking and the risk of head and neck cancer in the INHANCE consortium pooled analysis.. International journal of epidemiology.. 2015.
Risk factors for endometrial cancer in black and white women: a pooled analysis from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2).. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 26(2):287-96.. 2015.
Risk factors for head and neck cancer in young adults: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium.. International journal of epidemiology. 44(1):169-85.. 2015.
Risk of breast, endometrial, colorectal, and renal cancers in postmenopausal women in association with a body shape index and other anthropometric measures.. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 26(2):219-29.. 2015.
Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for Thirteen Cancer Types.. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 107(12). 2015.
Hormone Use, Reproductive History and Risk of Lung Cancer: The Women's Health Initiative Studies.. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.. 2015.
Genome-wide gene-asbestos exposure interaction association study identifies a common susceptibility variant on 22q13.31 associated with lung cancer risk.. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 24(10):1564-1573.. 2015.